The following is reproduced from a booklet titled
On October 27, 1969, in Washington, D.C., in the presence of the Honorable John A. Volpe, U.S. Secretary of Transportation, a licensing agreement was signed between The Budd Company, as the head of a consortium of North American Companies, and British Railways Board, to bring to our shores a broad "package" of technology and know-how which can be incorporated in the design, engineering, construction, and operation of an Advanced American Passenger Train (AAPT).
Outstanding among the advantages of applying such proven technology would be the accelerated achievement of the AAPT capable of operating on the existing roadbeds in heavily traveled corridors between U.S. cities and at speeds in excess of 150 mph.
The purpose of the Budd - BR partnership is to work with the U.S. D.O.T., and the transportation industry, in making the AAPT a practical reality and a viable solution to America's transportation needs of the mid-seventies.
Last year, The Budd Company announced the dis-continuance of railway car manufacturing at the conclusion of present contracts. The engineering expertise that created so many milestone trains in the past remains within our present competence.
All the engineering and technical disciplines of The Budd Company are available to the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the transportation industry, to produce this advanced passenger equipment.
The spectrum of Budd talents and facilities for Program Management includes:
preparation of specifications
evaluation of tenders
schedule control and reporting
production and production line monitoring and tests
materials and processing research and development
static and dynamic testing of the vehicle structure or elements
complete environmental programs - including heating, cooling, sound, and vibration
running performance and ride quality tests
These unique Budd capabilities supplemented by the technology available through our exclusive license with BR offers "capagility" for accomplishment of Advanced Transport Technology. The Advanced American Passenger Train.
Ten years ago British Railways created the Derby Laboratories. This has been steadily developed to the point where BR has unrivalled railway technical and engineering facilities at this location.
It comprises the Advanced Projects Laboratory, which is concerned primarily with the APT and, in addition -
Sub-soil, ballast, rail fasteners, rail steel, concrete sleepers and new projects, notably the slab track.
Signalling and power matters, notably, the train control project.
A range of problems from paint, cleaning, plastics, lubrication to rail adhesion and new battery systems.
The engineering properties of materials, notably, fatigue.
Design, Procurement and Workshop facilities are also housed in the Research Centre. The total staff is 1000.
Today the Derby Research Centre is unique in railways. It is of railways for railways. It is equipped to deal with the whole range of railway technical matters, not only those arising out of current operating practices but to offer solutions for future commercial needs. It is uniquely set up to examine total engineering problems and to concentrate on system optimisation. The design of rolling stock particularly in relation to static loads and unsprung mass and the design of track are interactive problems, as also are signalling and braking matters and matters of track and sub-soil.
Derby's strength is its ability to apply advanced technology to railway and kindred surface guided transport systems as part of a package aimed to optimise the system needs.
With the re-awakening of interest in passenger railroading as a positive means of transport the British almost a decade ago devoted time, talent and money to an examination of advanced rail technology.
This engineering research into the dynamics of railway vehicles together with the application of new, but available, technology from other industries has stimulated a reappraisal of the prospects for rail transport for the future. This has led to the concepts embodied in BR's Advanced Passenger Train (APT).
The APT has been conceived as a high performance railway train capable of running at high speeds on existing tracks and with existing signalling.
Initially, the APT will run at speeds up to 155 mph and its average speed will be well over 100 mph. Two clear advantages: the train can deliver its passengers faster than the automobile and it makes "one day round trips" possible for distances of up to 300 miles.
The BR-APT is an articulated formation of trailer cars with a power car, containing engineer's cabs at each end. The number of trailer cars is determined by performance requirements and increased capacity can be obtained by adding unit multiples.
Key to ride quality and speed - fresh approach to design of "bogie" -
exploits basic guidance of coned steel wheel steel rail, giving smooth motion in curves, reduced wheel flange and rail wear, improved passenger comfort and reduced maintenance costs.
active tilting system - curves negotiated at speeds 50% higher.
multi-stage vertical suspension - low frequency secondary with active levelling - providing high degree of isolation from track irregularities.
works with wheels in worn condition - frequent re-profiling of wheels is unnecessary as with conventional trains.
Truck has low unsprung mass - high standard of ride for passengers and small forces applied to track even at high speeds.
Lightweight double-skin monocoque units can be designed.
Consists of a multiple installation of automotive gas turbines of 400 HP. There are five turbines in each power car driving alternators. Four turbo-alternators feed silicon controlled rectifiers which supply bogie frame mounted D.C. electric motors. These Motors drive the axle through a flexible drive. The fifth turbo-alternator provides electric supply for the train. Advantages of this power system are:
Braking is important because the APT is intended to operate on existing tracks with existing signalling at high speeds. To cater for the large amount of energy to be dissipated, a hydrokinetic brake has been developed. Used in conjunction with a body mounted radiator and using water-glycol as fluid, this brake provides high capacity with low truck mass.
A co-operative program between the U.S. Department of Transportation. The Budd Company and British Railways Board can produce the Advanced American Passenger Train now.
It will bring city centers (up to 300 miles apart) closer together because present speeds can be increased 50% without right-of-way modification.
With conventional rail equipment, this can only be accomplished by new well-aligned tracks similar to the Tokaido system which would cost up to $2,000,000 per mile.
A typical example of an APT application is the Chicago-St. Louis Corridor.
Full implementation of the AAPT on the major corridors and segments of the System suggest an immediate start on a practical and properly phased program.
A realistic schedule and required funding would be:
Systems study of a specific corridor and its requirements -
Design Development AAPT for U.S. clearance, componets, regulations,
Procure two six-car AAPTs
BR research and cautious progress in developing this concept provides for optimum reliability in new equipment. The principal sub-systems key to a successful APT train have been intensively tested in the on-going railroad environment, thus assuring minimum start-up delays. The design is based on all the improvements being accomplished within the train as a system, thus the only interface with existing systems, is at the wheel-to-rail. With this system integration as a primary design and engineering criteria, the AAPT can serve immediately to up-grade passenger service in the United States without major investment in right-of-way improvements.
The time to start such a program is now. The Budd Company, in partnership with British Railways Board is best qualified to furnish the overall management and implementation of AAPT.
U.S. DEPT. OF TRANSPORT
NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION
THE BUDD COMPANY
BRITISH RAILWAYS BOARD